Data tabulation refers to the organization of data into rows and columns, much like what is seen in spreadsheets and CSV files. This is often the structure of data that businesses aim to leverage, encompassing things like sensor data, consumer behavior patterns, and customer relationship management databases. Traditionally, dealing with python-based tabular data has been accomplished through non-deep learning methods, like random forests and gradient boosting. That said, deep learning strategies have gained traction in recent times.
The question then arises, why opt for deep learning for tabular data analysis when tree ensemble methods have shown high efficacy?
Several potential benefits of deep learning have been identified by researchers:
- It may demonstrate superior results, especially with large datasets.
- The gradient descent method of training deep learning systems facilitate the integration of image and text inputs without disrupting the entire system.
- Compared to tree-based methods that require global data access, deep learning models operate more conveniently in an online mode.
It's worth noting, however, that deep learning models are more complex and depend on extensive hyperparameter tuning, unlike random forests and gradient boosting which usually perform reasonably well without much adjustment.
Neural Network Techniques for Tabular Data
Attention mechanisms are gaining popularity, primarily in language models. For instance, BERT makes use of Self-attention, which allows the neural network to focus on specific areas of the input data at any moment.
Entity embedding techniques learn to represent categorical variable values as low-dimensional numerical vectors. This is done through solving classification problems, a method that has proved successful for companies like Pinterest and Instacart.
Finally, hybrid methods combine deep learning and traditional ML attributes, such as integrating entity embeddings into a gradient-boosting model.
Deep Learning's Strengths
Deep learning wins in many cases as it learns intricate tree-like data representations. It allows the close study of language and vision both atomically and collectively. This learning capacity replaced the traditional hand-crafted features used for language and image analysis before deep learning's rise in the late 2000s. Models like BERT for language and DenseNets for images can now learn highly informative representations of data, thus eliminating the necessity for manual feature engineering.
Most standard neural network libraries also include techniques like convolutions that work well with the local structure of image and language data.
In the realm of tabular data, which usually lacks local or hierarchical structure, many consider deep learning unnecessary. Historical data suggests that the most reliable algorithms for tabular data are decision tree ensembles.